La. A net (for catching birds), gauze, openwork; sieve; to arrange in order.
. Arhat (S). Worthy, worshipful, the saint, or perfect man of Hìnayàna.
. Ràhu (S). Demon, king of asuras.
. Ràhu Atula (S). A demon.
. Ràhula (S). Son and one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha.
. Ràhulabhadra (S). 16th Indian patriarch.
. Ràksasas, ràksasi (S). Malignant spirits, malevolent demons.
. Kumàrajìva (S). Famous Indian monk, translator of sùtras.
. To collect contributions of food, an almsbowl.
Lạc (Nhạc, nhạo). Prti (S). Music; joy, joyful, glad, rejoice; also to find joy in, enjoy.
. The joyful country, the paradise of the West
. Nirmànarati (S). The fifth of the six desire-heavens, where any form of joy is attainable at will.
. The organs of pleasure - eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body.
. Desire for the pleasant, or pleasure.
. Causes of pleasure.
. Delight in Buddha-truth, or the religion.
. Joyful fruit, i.e. nirvàna.
. Perception of pleasure.
, . Optimistic.
. The sensation, or perception of pleasure.
. A happy land.
. Joy in preaching, or telling the way of salvation
. Preaching with eloquence.
. Very strong wind.
. Xem .
Lánh. To avoid, shun; to keep out of.
. Naiskramya (S). Giving up the world and leading a holy life. To avoid, shun the world; to live the life of a recluse, of a hermit.
Lão. Jarà (S). Old, old age.
. One of the four sufferings, that of old age.
. Sthavira (S). An old man, virtuous elder; great scholar
. Jaràmarana (S). Decrepitude and death; one of the twelve nidànas.
Lạp. Dried flesh; the end of the year; a year; a monastic year, i.e. the end of the annual summer retreat, also calles , , .
. The 8th day of the 12th month, the day of the Buddha's enlightenment.
. Lama (Tib).
. The offerings to Buddha after the summer retreat, maintained on the 15th day of the 7th month.
. In order of years, i.e. of ordination.
. Lanka (S). Lanka mount.
, . Lankàdvipa, Simhaladvipa (S). Actual Sri Lanka.
. Lankàvatàra-sùtra (S)
. Suramgama-sùtra (S)
Lâm. To regard with kindness; approach on the brink of, about to; whilst. . Approach the end, dying.
. A monastery during the Đường dynasty, in Chân Định phủ, from which the founder of school derived his title, his name was .
. Lumbini (S). Lumbini Park, birth place of Prince Siddhartha.
. Moha (S). Delusion, stupidity, infatuation.
. Viparyàsa (S). Contradictory mind, wrong state, reversal.
Lậu. Asràva (S). Flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction; passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind. Cankers, mental intoxicants.
. To make a leak in the commandments, i.e. break them.
. Xem lậu.
. The deeds of the sinner in the stream of transmigration, which produce his karma.
. Asràvaksaya (S). The end of the passions, or the exhaustion of the stream of transmigration.
. The assurance or realization that the stream of transmigration is ended and nirvàna attained.
. The realization that the stream of transmigration is ended.
. Asràvaksaya (S) The supernatural insight into the ending of the stream of transmigration; one of the six abhijnànas . Extinction of the cankers.
. The wisdom of the arhat.
. The monk who has ended the stream of transmigration, the arhat.
. The passions ended and the mind freed, the state of the arhat.
. Transmigration and nirvàna.
Lễ. Worship, offerings, rites; ritual, ceremonial, decorum, courtesy, etiquette.
. Namasyà (S). To worship, to render homage to deities. Veneration.
. Church, chapel.
. Good manners, decorum; education.
. To worship, reverence, pay respect.
. To worship Buddhas; to bow to the Buddhas.
. Worship and repentance, penitential offerings.
Lịch. To pass through, over or to; successive; separated; calender, astronomical calculations.
. Passing circumstances and the objects of the senses.
. Through many generations; generation after generation.
. To pass through a kalpa; in the course of a kalpa; through many existences, many lives.
Liên. Pundarika (S). The lotus, especially the white lotus Nymphoea alna; Padma (S). Especially the Nelumbium speciosum; Utpala (S). The Nymphoea coerulca, the blue lotus; Kumuda (S). Nymphoea esculenta, white lotus, or N. rubra, red lotus; Nilotpala (S). N. cyanea, a blue lotus. The first four are called white, red, blue, and yellow lotuses.
. The lotus land, the Pure Land of Amitàbha.
. Padmavimàna (S). Lotus-palace, the Pure Land of the Sambhogakàya; also the eight-leaved lotus of the heart.
. Nairanjanà (S). Name of river. Also , Ni .
. Padma (S). The lotus flower. Also .
. Saddharma-pundarìka-sùtra (S). Lotus sùtra. Also , .
. Padma-Sambhava (S)
. The pure-land of every Buddha, the land of his enjoyment.
. The lotus world or universe of each Buddha for his sambhogakàya.
. Padmapàni (S). holding a lotus flower.
. Padmàsana (S). To sit with crossed legs; also a lotus throne.
. Mutual protectors, or helpers of the Lotus-sect, i.e. members.
. The Lotus-sect.
. The eye of the blue lotus, i.e. the wonderful eye of Buddha.
. Lotus-ksetra, or lotus-land, the paradise of Amitàbha.
. The Lotus-womb in which the believers of Amitàbha are born into his paradise.
Liên tòa, . The lotus throne on which are seated the images; Buddha-throne.
. The Lotus-sect founded by Hui-yuan .
. Lotus seeds.
, . The white lotus sect, idem .
Liễu. To end, see through, understand, thoroughly know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.
. Thorough penetration, clear undersstanding.
. The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.
. Revelation of the whole meaning. nghĩa is partial reveletion adapted ( ) to the capacity of the hearers.
. The sùtras containing the whole truth.
. Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.
. A revealing cause. : a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; : a revealing cause, e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.
. The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. is the as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the ; is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated ăith the Buddha-wisdom; is the environment cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.
. Parijnà (S). Thorough knowledge. Full understanding.
Linh, . Ghantà (S). Small bell.
. Caitya (S). Sepulchral monument, shrine.
. Xem .
Linh thụ, . Udumbara (S). The glomarous fig tree.
, . Udumbara (S)
, , , Kỳ sơn. Grdhrakùta (S). Vulture peak mount.
. Kukrtya (S). Worry.
Loạn. Disturb, perturb, confusion, disorder, rebellion.
. Disorderly conduct.
. A disorderly monk.
. A perturbed or confused mind, to disturb or unsettle the mind.
. To disturb the good; confound goodness of those who worship, etc with divides mind.
. To think confusedly, or improperly.
Long. Nàga (S). Dragon, dragon-like, imperial. (Nàga: snake, serpent, elephant.)
. Dragon-pearl; pearl below the dragon's jaw.
. The Buddha of the race of honourable dragon-kings, a title of Manjusri.
. Dragon books, i.e. the sùtras, so called because the Sanskrit writings seemed to resemble the forms of snakes and dragons.
. Dragon palace, palace of the dragon-kings.
. The assembly of Maitreya Buddha for preaching the Buddha-truth.
. Nàga-puspa (S). The dragon-flower-tree, which will be the bodhi-tree of Maitreya Buddha .
.Dragon coffins, i.e. those for monks.
. Xem .
. Nàgakanyà (S), A naga-maiden.
. A samàdhi powerful like the dragon; abstract meditation which results in great spiritual power.
. . Nàgasena (S)
. The dragon-treasury or library.
. Dragon soup, a purgative concocted of human and animal urine and excrement.
. A dragon-god, or spirit.
. Dragon-kings and devas; also Nàgàrjuna and Vasubandhu.
. Nàgas, devas, raksasas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kinnaras, and maho-ragas.
(thọ), . Nàgàrjuna (S). 14th ndian patriarch.
. Nàgabodhi (S).
. Dragon elephant, or dragon and elephant, i.e. great saints, bodhisattvas, Buddhas.
. Nàgaràja (S). Dragon king, a title for the tutelary deity of a lake, river, sea and other places.
. Sràddhà (S). Faith, devotion.
Lô để ca, Lộ đà. Loka-yatika (S). Name of a heretic sect.
. Lokanàtha (S). .
. Lokavit (S). .
. Mrganika (S). Deer park. Also , .
, . Visàkhà (S). Name.
. Migalandika (S). Name.
. Kajmàsapàda (S).
. Sàrnàth (S). Actual name of Rsipatana.
. Vàc, vàcà (S). Speech, words. Also ngữ.
Lợi. Patu, tìksna (S). Sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage, interest.
. Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence, natural powers, endowment.
. To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice.
. The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame.
. Sangraha-vastu (S). The drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will.
. Benefit, aid, to bless
. Benefit to men and devas.
. A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitàbha, and Manjusri, indicating wisdom, discrimination, or power pover evil.
. Blessing and joy.
. To bless and give joy to the living or sentient.
. To benefit or profit men.
. Xem . Sinh is all the living.
. The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences, and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.
. Parahita (S). Welfare for others. The bodhisattva-mind is , to improve oneself for the purpose of improving or benefiting others. Welfare for others.
. Pàtava (S). Keen intelligence, wisdom, discrimination.
. Xem . Vật: the being.
Luân. Cakra (S). Wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve. The three wheels are illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind and space; the earth rests on revolving spheres of water, fire, wind and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas.
. A cakravartin's wheel, i.e. either gold, silver, copper or iron manifesting his rank and power.
. Samsàra (S). The turning of the wheel, to revolve, i.e. transmigration in the six ways, the wheel of transmigration; the round of existence.
. Alàtacakra (S). Xem .
. Samsàra (S). Transmigration of souls; metempsychosis. Round of rebirths.
. Cakravartin (S). A ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction; an emperor, a sovereign ofvthe world, a supreme ruler.
Luận. Sàstra, abhidharma, upadesa (S). To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.
. Xem .
. Arthakarthà (S). Explanation, commentary. Also .
. Upadesa (S). Dogmatic treatises, the twelfth and last section of the Canon. Also .
. Sàstra-writer. or interpreters, philosophers.
. Abhidharma-pitaka (S)> Thesaurus of discussions or discourses. The basket of philosophical treatises.
. The Madhyamaka school of the ; also the Abhidharma or Sàstra school.
Luật. Vinaya, pratimoksa, sìla, upalaksa (S). The discipline, monastic rules.
. The discipline in practice, to act according to the rules.
. Rules and ceremonies, an intuitive apprehension of which, both written and unwritten, enable the individual to act properly under all circumstances.
. The first of the three Tụ giới, i.e. to avoid evil by keeping to the discipline.
. The laws or methods of the discipline; rules and laws.
. Repentance and penance according to the rules.
. Master and teacher of the rules of the discipline.
. Vinaya pitaka (S). Basket of discipline. Also , tỳ ni (dịch cũ)
. The Vinaya school, emphasizing the monastic discipline, founded in China by of the Đường dynasty.
. The discipline, or its characteristics.
(thặng). The Vinaya-vehicle, the teaching which emphasizes the discipline.
Lục. Sad, sat (S). Six.
. Six paramitàs.
. The six works chosen by as authoritative in the Dharmalaksana school, i.e , Giải , , , , and Hậu nghiêm.
. The six fields of the senses, i.e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought).
. Sadàyatana (S). The six indriyas or sense-organs: mắt eye, tai ear, mũi nose, lưỡi tongue, thân body, ý mind. Six bases.
. The powers of the six senses, i.e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.
. Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power.
. A penitential (repentant) service over the sins of the six senses.
. The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of Buddha.
. The state of the organs thus purified is defined by as the vị of the or the tương tợ tức of the . Xem .
. Six things that defile: cuống exageration, siểm flattery, kiêu arrogance, não vexation, hận hatred, hại malice.
. The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, of which there are two different categories. I-Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preaching, when Màra besought him to live, and at his nirvàna; some omit the fifth and after "birth" add "leaving home". II. Động shaking, Khởi rising, Dũng waving, Chấn reverberating, Hống roaring, Kích arousing.
. The six kinds of certainty resulting from the observance of the six pàramitàs: (1) Tài thành the certainty of wealth; (2) Sinh thắng of rebirth in honourable families; (3) of no retrogression (in lower conditions); (4) of progress in practice; (5) of unfailingly good karma; (6) Vô công of effortless abode in truth and wisdom.
. The six germ-natures, or roots of Bodhisattva development: (1) , the germ-nature of study of the không void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the ; (2) Tính chủng t., that of ability to discriminate all the tính natures of phenomena and transform the living, the stage; (3) Đạo chủng t. (the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-law, the ; (4) t., the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance, the , in which the Bodhisattva leaves the rank of the hiền and becomes thánh; (5) t., the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood. (6) t. Buddha stage.
. The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattvabhùmi-sùtra : (1) trụ the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the ; (2) trụ of discernment and practice in the , ; (3) of purity by attaining reality in the ; (4) tích trụ of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the nhị địa to ; (5) trụ of powers of correct decision and judgment in the bát, ; (6) trụ of the perfect Bodhisattva-stage in the and the , but not including the which is the Buddha-stage.
. The six able devices ođ Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth etc. (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity.
. The six illustrations of unreality in the Diamond sùtra: mộng dream, huyễn a phantasm, bào a bubble, ảnh a shadow, lộ dew and điện lightning
. The six sexual attractions arising fron sắc colour; form; tư thái carriage; voice (or speech); tế họạt softness; and features. Desires that originate in the six sensorial roots.
. The devalokas, i.e. the heavens of desire, i.e. with sense-organs
. The six great, or fundamental things, or elements - địa earth, thủy water, hỏa fire, phong wind (or air), không space (or ether) and thức mind (or perception). These are universal and creative of all things, but the vô tình inanimate are made only of the first five while the animate are of all six.
. The six great klesa, passions or distressers: tham desire, sân resentment, si stupidity, mạn pride, nghi doubt and false views.
. The six ways, or conditions of sentient existence. Xem .
. The four modes of the six rebirths - thai womb, noãn egg,thấp moisture, hóa transformation.
. The four holy ways of the six rebirths - sràvakas, pratyeka-buddhas , bodhisattvas, Phật Buddhas.
. The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvàna, i.e. the six pàramitàs: (1) dàna, charity or giving, including the bestowing of truth on others; (2) sìla, keeping the commandments; (3) ksànti, patience under insult; (4) vìrya, zeal and progress; (5) dhyàna, meditation or contemplation; (6) prajnà, wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last which carries across the samsàra (sea of incarnate life) to the shore of nirvàna. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The adds four other pàramitàs: (7) upàya, the use of appropriate means; (8) Nguyện pranidhàna, pious vows; (9) Lực bala, power of fulfilment; (10) Trí jnana knowledge.
. The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of the Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honoured.
. The six elements. Xem .
. The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements.
. The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: (1) bodily unity in form of worship thân hòa đồng trụ; (2) oral unity in chanting ; (3) mental unity in faith ý hòa đồng duyệt; (4) moral unity in observing the commandments giới hòa đồng tu; (5) doctrinal unity in views and explainations kiến hòa đồng giải; (6) economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies or charity lợi hòa đồng quân.
, sáu gút. A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity.
, sáu . The six arhat, i.e. Sàkyamuni and his first five disciples.
, sáu điều khó. The six difficult things: (1) Khó gặp Phật ra đời to be born in the Buddha-age; (2) Khó được nghe to hear the true Buddha-law; (3) Khó sinh lòng lành to beget a good heart; (4) Khó sinh ra nơi trung ương to be born in the central kingdom; (5) Khó được thân người to be born in human form; (6) Khó đầy đủ các căn to be perfect,
. The six thoughts to dwell upon: Phật Buddha, Pháp the Law, Tăng the Order, the Giới commands, precepts, Thí almsgiving, and Thiên heaven with its prospective joys.
. The six years of Sàkyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.
. The six causations of the six stages of Bodhisattva development. Every phenomenon depends upon the union of nhân primary cause and duyên conditional or environmental cause; and ođ the nhân there are six kinds: (1)-Năng Kàrana-hetu, effective causes; (2)-Câu hữu nhân Sahabhù-hetu, co-operative causes; (3)-Đồng loại Sabhàga-hetu, causes of the same kind; (4)-Tương ưng nhân Samprayukta-hetu, mutual responsive, or associated causes; (5)-Biến Sarvatraga-hetu, universal oromnipresent causes; (6)-Dị thục nhân Vipàka-hetu, differential fruition.
. Sadàyatana (S). The six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation - eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidànas.
. The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people: in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men and devas.
. The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: bất dâm indelicacy of contact with a male; bất đạo purloining for cash; bất sát killing animals; bất cuống ngữ untruthfulness; bất food after the midday meal; bất wine drinking.
. The six directions E. W. N. S. above and below.
. The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage to the six directions.
Lục quần tỉ khưu (). The six common-herd bhiksus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws of Sàkyamuni.
. The six ruiners, i.e. the attractions of the six senses, idem , .
. The six tirthikas or heterodox teachers: (1) , Pùrana Kàsyapa; (2)-Mạt ly tử, Maskari Gosalêputra; (3)-San xà da Tỳ la hiền tử, Sanjayin Vairatitra; (4)-A kỳ đa Si xá khâm , Ajita Kesakambala; (5)-Ca la cưu đà , Kakuda Kàtyàyana; (6)-Ni , Nirgranta-Jnatiputra.
. The six things which enable a Bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pàramitàs - worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law.
. The six cauras, or robbers, i.e. the six senses; also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs.
. Six perfections found in the opening phrase of each sùtra: (1) "Thus", implies perfect faith tín ; (2) "have I heard, perfect hearing ; (3) "once", perfect time thời tt; (4) "the Buddha", the perfect lord or master chủ tt; (5) "on Mt Grdhrakùta", the perfect place xứ tt; (6) "with the great assembly of bhiksus", the perfect assembly chúng tt.
. The six immediate relations - father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.
. The six transcendental, or magical powers. Xem .
. Sixty two wrong views.
. The six "hours" or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i.e. morning, noon, evening; night, midnight and dawn.
. The six devalokas: (1)-Tứ . The realm of the four great kings. (2)-Đao lợi thiên. Heaven of the thirty three gods. (3)-Dạ . Yama heaven. (4)-Đâu suất thiên. Tusita heaven. (5)-Lạc thiên. Nirmàna-rati heaven. (6)-Tha hóa . Para-nirmita-vasavartin heaven.
. Abhijnà, or sadabhijnà (S). The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyàna: (1) Divyacaksu, divine eye; (2) Divyasrotra, divine ear; (3) Rddhisàksàkrya, magical powers; (4) Purvànivàsànu-smrtijnàna, remembrance of one's former state of existence; (5) Paracittà-jnàna, ability to perceive other person's thoughts; (6) LỈu tận thông Àsravaksaya-jnàna, supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities; extinction of the cankers.
. The six directions of reincarnation, also : (1) naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) asura-gati, of malevolent nature spirits; (5) nhân manusya-gati, of human existence; (6) thiên deva-gati, of deva existence.
(thọ). The six vedanas, i.e. receptions or sensations from the six organs .
Lục thụy, sáu điềm. The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus-sùtra: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samàdhi; (3) mưa hoa the rain of flowers; (4) động đất the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) Phật the Buddha-ray.
. The six consciousness.
Lục tiễn, sáu mũi tên. The six arrows, i.e. the six senses.
. The six patriarchs of who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession, i.e. Bodhidharma, , Tăng Sán, , and .
. The six kinds of offender, i.e. one who commits any of the tứ trọng four grave sins, or destroys the harmony in the order. or sheds a Buddha's blood.
. The six schools: , , , Luật, , .
. The six monthly posadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, 30th.
. Bàhyu-àyatana (S). The six gunas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i.e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and idea. Dust trần is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. The six external base-spheres.
. The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds, greed, love, hate, lust, pride.
. The six kinds of wisdom. Each is alloted seriatim to one of the six positions (1) the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with ; (2) of thought, with (3) Tu tuệ of observance, with the ; (4) tuệ of neither extreme, or the mean, with ; (5) tuệ of understanding of nirvàna, with ; (6) tuệ of making nirvàna illuminate all beings, with Buddha-fruition.
. The six words or syllables Namo Amitàbha.
. Aum Mani Padme Hum ( ).
. The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the , i.e. Perfect or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary , etc, as found in the Differentiated or Seperate school. The six are: (1) Lý tức realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2)- the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha-law and potentially Buddha; (3)-Quán hạnh tức advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as ngũ phẩm or . (4)-Tương tợ tức semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the , i.e.the vị, (5)-Phần chứng tức discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i.e. the , , , and of the , known also as the cause or root of holiness; (6)-Cứu cánh tức perfect enlightenment, i.e. or fruition of holiness.
. Buddha in six forms mentioned above.
. The six characteristics found in everything - whole and parts, đồng dị unity and diversity, thành hoại entirety and (its) fraction.
. The six things personal to amonk - sanghàti, the patch robe; uttarà sanghàti, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vàsaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the three garments; pàtra begging bowl; nisìdana a stool; and a water-strainer. The six are also called .
. The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i.e. , , , , , .
. The six tastes or flavours - đắng bitter, chua sour, ngọt sweet, chát acrid, mặn salt and nhạt insipid
, . Sadàyatana (S). The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidànas. Six spheres of sense-organs.
, , . Trsnà (S), Tanhà (P). Craving, thirst, lust.
. Lokottaravàda (S). Buddhist sect. Also , .
. Xem .
Lự thủy nang, đồ lọc nước. Water-filter.
Lửa. Agni (S). Fire.
Lực. Bala (S). Power, strength. : the ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
. The bala-pàramità (S). Resolution.
. Vira (S). A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod.
. Virocana Buddha (S). The Sun Buddha.
Lương. Good, beneficial, virtuous.
. The litany of for his wife, who became a large snake, or dragon, after her death and troubled the emperor's dreams. After the litany was performed, she became a devi, thanked the emperor and departed. Also .
, cát nhật. A good or auspicious day.
. Liang Wu Ti (C). A Chinese Emperor.
. The field of blessedness, cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law and the Order.
Lưỡng. Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael.
, hai cánh. The two wings of định meditation and tuệ wisdom.
. Mandala of the two sections, i.e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbolizing the Vajradhàtu and Garbhadhàtu.
. The two rivers, Niranjanà where Buddha attained enlightenment and Hiranyavati where he entered nirvàna.
, thần hai vai. The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder.
. The two temporary vehicles, Sràvaka and Pratyeka-Buddha , as contrasted to the thực complete Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahàyàna.
. Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct .
. The most honoured among men and devas (among two footed beings), a title of Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, phúc blessing and tuệ wisdom, relative and absolute teaching, meditation and action.
Lưu. Flow; float; spread; wander.
. Samsàra (S). Transmigration, flowing and returning, flowing back again.
. The way of transmigration, as contrasted with that of nirvàna.
. Flowed or floated down; that which has come down from the past.
. Transmigration which has come down from thr state of primal ignorance.
. Floating or shifting sands.
. Spread abroad; permeate; flowing through, or everywhere, without effective hindrance. Circulation.
. To hand down (to posterity); to bequeath sth to generations to come.
. Lapis lazuli.
Ly. To leave, part from, apart from, abandon.
. To abandon the five obscurers, or hindrances to truth.
. To leave the impure, abandon the defiling influence of the passions, or illusion.
. The second of the ten bodhisattva stages in which he overcomes all passion and impurity
. To abandon the eye of imourity, or cantamination, and attain the eye which beholds truth and reality.
. The world free from impurity, the name of Sàriputra's Buddha-realm.
. To leave or be free from desire, or the passions.
. Talk which causes estrangement between friends; alienating words; one of the ten wicked things.
. Visamyogaphala (S).
. That which cannot be described in words, e.g. the bhùtatathatà, which is beyond definition.
. To leave the chain of rebirth.
. The first dhyàna heaven, where is experienced the joy of leaving the evils of life.
. The true nature of the holy man which leaves the round of mortality.
. Apart from mind there is no other Buddha, i.e. the tính is Buddha.
, , . The inner commands, or observance in the heart, in contrast with external observance or ritual.
. Kasàya (S). The monk's robe, freed from the dusty world; i.e. free from the contamination of the senses.
Lý. Siddhànta, hetu (S). Ruling principle, fundamental law, intrinsicality, universal basis, essential element; nidàna, reason; pramàna, to arrange, regulate, rule, rectify.
. The hindrance caused by incorrect views of truth.
. Wholly noumenal, or all things as aspects of the absolute, a doctrine of the "profounder" school, in contrast with the of the "shallower" school, which considered all things to be phenomenally produced.
. Illusion in regard to fundamental truth, e.g. the reality of the ego and things; as is illusion in regard to things themselves. Also fundamental illusion; reality and illusion.
. Reasoning on, or discussion of, principles, or fundamental truth.
. Entry by the truth, or by means of the doctrine, as hạnh nhập is entry by conduct or practice.
. The Dharmakàya as absolute being, in contrast with the Dharmakàya as wisdom, both according to the older school being noumenal; later writers treat as noumenal and as kinetic or active. one of the , that of the common essence or dharmakàya of all beings.
. The fundamental or intrinsic Buddha, i.e. the Dharmakàya; also the doctrine of Buddha as immanent in all beings.
. The fundamental Buddha-nature, in contrast with Hạnh the Buddha-nature in action or development.
. The concept of absolute truth; the concentration of the mind upon reality.
. Noumena and phenomena, principle and practice, absolute and realative, real and empirical, cause and effect, fundamental essence and external activity, potential and actual; e.g. store and distribution, ocean and wave, static and kinetic.
. Truth is in eliminating words; it is independent of words; it does not require words to express it.
. Absolute nature, immutable reality, fundamental prinviple or character.
. The underlying truth of all things is Buddha; immanent reason; Buddhahood, or the underdeveloped Buddha in all beings.
. The fundamental substance or body of all things.
. The dhyàna of or concentration on absolute truth free from phenomenal contamination.
. Principle and gnosis (reason); the noumenal in essence and in knowledge; the truth in itself and in knowledge; lý is also the fundamental principle of the phenomenon under observation, trí the observing wisdom. Also knowledge or enlightenment in its essence or purity, free from incarnational influences.