Sa. Bàlukà. (S). Sand; sands, e.g. of Ganges, implying countless.
. Svàha (S). Hail! So be it. Ritual term pronounced at the end of the prayer. Also .
. Sràmanera (S). Novice-monk.
. The ten commandments, or precepts taken by the novice-monk.
. Sràmanerika. Novice-nun.
. The ten precepts taken by the novice-nun.
, . Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.
Sa ka la, Sa ga la. Sakala (S). Actual Siàlkot.
. Sàgara (S). Ocen of Nàgas. Also long.
. Sàla (S). Sal tree.
. Sàlavana (S). Sal grove.
. The twin trees in the grove in which Sàkyamuni entered nirvàna.
. Sammatìya (S). A sect. Also .
. Sàmaveda (S). The 3rd of four books of Veda.
. Sahà (S). The world around us, the present world. Also
. Sannagarika (S). A sect. Also .
. Sramana (S). (1) Ascetics of all kinds. (2) Buddhist monks who have left the family and quitted the passions. Explained by toilful achievement, diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), purity of mind, poverty.
. Sramana Gautama (S). An epithet of the Buddha.
. The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the sramana.
. Sàmannaphalasuttanta (P).
. Svàgata (S). Welcome. Also .
Sai. Mrsà (S). Falsehood, lie. Also .
. Mithyà (S). Untrue, wrong. Also Vọng, .
Sám. Ksamayati (S). To seek forgiveness, patience or indulgence, ksamà meaning patience, forbearance, tr. as sám quá repentance or regret for error; also as confession. It especially refers to the regular confessional service for monk and for nun.
. Khamàpanà (P). Repentance, confession.
. Ksamayati (S). To have patience with, to forbear; ask for consideration or pardon.
. Clothing made of ksauma, i.e. wild flax.
. The rules for confession and pardon.
. The mode of action, or ritual, at the confessional; also the various types of confessional, e.g. of , , etc.
. Confession and forgiveness.
. Sanjaya Vairattìputra (S).
San-địa-niết-mộ-chiết-na. Sandhinirmochana-s-tra (S). . Scripture Unlocking the Mysteries.
Sát. Ksetra (S). Land, fields,country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand large chiliocosms.
. Ksatriya (S). The second, or warrior and ruling cast.
. Ksetra (S). Land, country. Field, plot of land. Also , .
. Land and sea.
. Lands, countless as the dust.
. Ksana (S). An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of time, as kalpa is the longest.
. Ksanabhanga (S). All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed every instant. Perpetual and simultaneous transformations of thought.
. The moments past, present, future.
. Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth, stay, change, death.
Sát. To kill, to slay, to murder, to put to death; to cut down, cut off.
. The murderer, a name for Màra.
. Precept on not-killing.
. The karma resulting from killing.
. To slay demons; a ghost of the slain; a murderous demon; a metaphor for impermanence.
. Pànaghàta (P). To take life, kill the living, or any conscious being; the taking of human life offends against the major commands, of animal life against the less stringent commands. Suicide also leads to severe penalties.
. Ksìnàsrava (S). Thief-destroyer, i.e. conqueror of the passions, an arhat.
. To kill one's mind; murderous mind.
. To kill oneself.
Sắc. Rùpa (S). Outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially the feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i.e. the phenomenal; also as colour and quality, form or the measurable, and mode or action.
. Xem .
. Rùpa-skandha. Xem .
. The material as a bubble, impermanent.
. The concealing, or misleading, character of the visible, or material, the seeming concealing reality.
. Visible objects, the realm of vision, or form.
. Xem , .
. Material objects.
, sắc định. Akanistha (S). The highest of the material heavens.
. Rùparàga (S). Sexual desire, or passion; lusts of the flesh, cocupiscence. Ham mê , to indulge in carnal desires, in the sins of the flesh.
. Rùpadhàtu, rùpavacara, rùpaloka (S). Any material world, or world of form; it especially refers to the second of the Trailokya , the Brahmalokas above the Devalokas, comprising sixteen or seventeen or eighteen "Heavens of Form" divided into four Dhyànas.
. Material existence.
. Heretics who denied material existence (and consequently sought self-control, or nirvàna.
. Rùpa-jìvitindriyà (S). Vital power of physical faculties.
, . The entrances, or places, where the organs and objects of physical sense meet, ten in all, cf ngũ nhập. Also one of the twelve nidànas.
. Rùpa-dharma (S). 11 Form-elements: (1) nhãn caksu, eye; (2) nhĩ srotra, ear; (3) tỉ ghràna, nose; (4) thiệt jihvà, tongue; (5) thân kàya, body; (6) sắc rùpa, form; (7) thanh sabda sound; (8) hương gandha, smell; (9) vị rasa, taste; (10) xúc sparsa, touch; (11) pháp dharmà-yatanasamgr-hìtam-rùpam, forms included in dharma-àyatana, elements as objects of consciousness: (a) , a substantial form analyzed to utmost, the smallest atom; (b) cực hánh sắc, an unsubstantial form as aerial space or colour analyzed to utmost, the remotest atom; (c) , a form produced by meditation; (d) , a perceptive form conceived at ordination, the innermost impression; (e) sắc, a momentary illusive form.
. Physical light, as contrasted with light of the mind; every Buddha has both, e.g. his halo, aura.
. Forms and emptiness; Reality is the non-dual Absolute.
. Beauty and talent.
. Matter and mind, the material and immaterial.
. The visible and audible.
. Rùpa-kàya (S). The physical body, as contrasted with the dharma-kàya, the immaterial, spiritual, or immortal body.
. Form is emptiness.
. The material, material appearance, or external manifestation, the visible. Form, appearance, phenomenon.
. A Buddha's material or visible world.
. The quality of form, colour, or sexual attraction; one of .
. Rùpa skandha (S). The skandha of rùpa, or that which has form, v. .
. Atoms of things of form, or colour.
. The flavour of sexual attraction, love of women.
. Xem .
. Ksanti (S). Patience, forbearance, enduring shame.
. Ksànti-pàramità (S). Cardinal patience.
. Ksàntirsi (S). Name of Sàkyamuni in a previous incarnation, the patient or enduring rsi.
Sân. Krodha; pratigha; dvesa (S). Anger, ire, wrath, resentment.
. The poison of anger.
. Hatred, resentment.
. The fire of anger.
. The fire of anger.
. The messenger, or lictor of anger.
. The passion or defilement of anger.
. Quick-tempered, irascible, choleric.
. A heart of anger.
. Daurmanasya (S). Grief, distress.
Si. Moha (S). Unconsciousness, delusion, perplexity, ignorance, folly, infatuation, stupidity. It is intp by unenlightened, i.e. misled by appearances, taking the seeming for real; from this unenlightened condition arises every kind of klesa, i.e. affliction or defilement by the passions, etc. It is one of the three poisons tham desire, sân dislike, si delusion.
. Ignorance and desire, or unenlightened desire, ignorance being father, desire mother, which produce all affliction and evil karma.
. The darkness of the unenlightened condition.
. Deluded dogs.
. Siddhàrta (S). Prince Siddhàrta. Also .
. The lamp of delusion, attracting the unenlightened as a lamp does the moth.
. The samàdhi of ignorance, i.e. without mystic insight.
. The poison of ignorance, or delusion, one of the three poisons.
. Unenlightened and deluded, ignorant of the right way of seeing life and phenomena.
. Ignorance and pride, or ignorant pride.
. Unenlightened and led astray.
. The common, unenlightened people. Also .
. The bond of unenlightenment.
. The messenger, lictor, or affliction of unenlightenment.
. An unenlightened mind, ignorance darkening the mind.
. The klesa of moha, held in unenlightenment.
. The turbid waters of ignorance; also to drink the water of delusion.
. The net of ignorance.
. Purusakàraphala (S). Manliness, virility.
Siêu. Vikrama (S). Leap over, surpass, excel; exempt from; to save. Super, transcendent.
. Surpassing the eight other schools, as does the teaching of the Lotus and Nirvàna Sùtras, according to .
. To outshine, excel, transcend.
. Out of the common.
. To pass across the mundane existence; to go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth; to leave for ever the life on earth, the world of becoming; to release (souls) from purgatory.
. Metapsychic(al). , metapsychics.
. Uttari-manussa (P). Superman.
. (Phật). Surpassing the sun and moon light Buddha.
. Vikramàditya (S) An Indian King.
. Supernatural, preternatural.
. Extraordinary, out of the common.
. Samatikram (S). To go beyond, cross over, transgress.
. To cross over the threefold world.
. To go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth.
. To enter the Pure Land (of Amitàbha-Buddha).
. To go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth.
. Lokottara (S). Surpassing the world, superior to anything in the world. Transcendental. Also .
. Jnànam-laukottara-tamam (S). Knowledge of the supreme supra world.
. Xem . Supramundane, unwordly; free from human bondage; lofty, exalted.
. Surpassing, supreme; to pass over, be exempt from.
Sinh. Jàti (S). Life. Utpàda means coming forth, birth, production. Sinh means beget, bear, birth, rebirth, born, begin, produce life, the living. One of the twelve nidànas
. Life's retribution, i.e. the deeds done in this life produce their results in the next reincarnation.
. Utpàdanirodha (S). Birth and death, production and annihilation; all life, all phenomena have birth and death, beginning and end. The Màdhyamika school deny this in the Thực absolute, but recognize it in the Giả relative.
. Coming into existence and ceasing to exist, past and future, are merely relative terms and not true in reality.
. Contemplation on birth and death.
. The three regions of the constant round of rebirth.
. The way or lot of those born, i.e. of mortality.
, . Aupapàduka (S). One of the four forms of birth, i.e. by transformation, without perentage, and in full maturity; thus do bodhisattvas come from the Tusita heaven; the dhyàni-buddhas and bodhisattvas are also of such miraculous origin.
. One of the four forms of existence.
. The physical body of Buddha and his transformation body capable o any form; the Nirmàna-kàya in its two forms of ứng and hóa.
. Jìvitindriya (S). Breath of life; vitality, animation, liveliness.
. The suffering at birth.
. Empty at birth, i.e. , void of a permanent ego
. Utpàda (S). Birth and what arises from it; cause of an act; the beginning and rise. Rising, coming into existence; birth.
. Stories of the previous incarnations of the Buddha and his disciples
Sinh, Lão, Bệnh, Tử. Birth, age, sickness, death.
. The mind or intelligence of the living; a living intelligent being. Khiến cho phải đồ thán, to cause people's misery; to reduce the people to destitution.
. Vital force; life force; energy, vigour, strength.
. Born blind.
. Ajìva (S). Life, livehood.
. Janaka-karma (S). Regenerative karma, productive karma.
. Common or ordinary patience, i.e. of the masses.
. The primary cause of birth.
. The second Bodhisattva on the right of the Bodhisattva of Space in the Garbhadhàtu.
. The living and things, i.e. , , men and things, the self and things; the sentient, or those with emotions, i.e. the living; and vô tình those without, i.e. insentient things.
. Contemplation on the emptiness of living and things.
. The physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha.
. Buddha alive; a living Buddha.
. Meditation on birth.
. Jàta-rùpa. Gold.
. Birth and rebirth (without end).
, bến sông. The ford of life, or mortality.
. The physical body; also that of a Buddha in contrast with his dharmakàya; also a bodhisattva's body when born into the mortal form.
. The worship paid to Buddha-relics.
. The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i.e. from that the to the thiên.
. Eight methods, or ways to be reborn in the Pure Land.
. Bhava (S). Process of existence, process of becoming.
. Birth, stay, change (or decay), death.
, tức sinh. To be born is not to be born, not to be born is to be born - an instance of the identity of contraries. It is an accepted doctrine of the prajnà teaching and the ultimate doctrine of the Màdhyamika school. Birth, creation, life each is but a giả temporary term, in common statement it is called birth, in truth it is not birth, in the relative it is birth, in the absolute non-birth.
. Samsàra (S). Birth and death; rebirth and redeath; life and death.
. The wildness of the mortal life.
. Release from the bonds of births-and-deaths, nirv...na.
. The ocean of mortality, mortal life, samsàra, or transmigration.
. Bhavacakra (S). The wheel of births-and-deaths, the round of mortality.
. Gati (S). The flow of mortal life. Course of existence. Also dòng đời.
. The quagmire of mortal life.
. The shore of mortal life.
. The bonds of birth-and-rebirth.
. The region of births-and deaths.
. Mortality is Nirvàna.
. The long night of births-and-deaths.
. The abyss of the mortal life.
. The garden of life and death, this mortal world in which the unenlightened find their satisfaction.
. Birth is non-birth.
, sinh tợ. Natural and similar, i.e. gold and silver, gold being the natural and perfect metal and colour; silver being next, though it will tarnish; the two are also called and khả nhiễm, i.e. the proper natural (unchanging) colour, and the tarnishable.
. Avadànasataka (S). Collection of a hundred avadànas.
. Dreddhàvitakka-sutta (P). Also .
. Yugamdhara (S). Name of a river. Also Du căn .
Số. To number, count, enumerate, figure out, calculate, reason, reprimand; numbers, an account, fate, destiny; flurried. It is also used for trí knowledge and for mental content or conditions as in .
. Màlà (S). A rosery; to tell beads, which consist of various numbers, generally 108. Also .
. Sàmkhya (S). A non-buddhist sect. Also .
. Founder of the Sànkhya philosophy.
. Nìyati (S). Fate, destiny. Also s- phận.
Sổ quán, sổ môn, . Anàpàna (S). Xem .
. To count the breathings in order to calm mind and body for meditation.
. Anàprànasmrti (S), Anàpànasatti (P). Mindfulness on the in-and-out breathing.
Sơ. Beginning, first.
. The first of the ten Bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvàna.
. The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.
. The initiator of change, or mutation, i.e. the àlaya-vijnàna, so called because the other vijnànas are derived from it.
. The initial determination to seek enlightenment.
. Srotàpanna (S). The initial fruit, or achievement, the stage of Srotàpanna, illusion being discarded and the stream of enlightenment entered.
. The aiming at .
. The initial ksana, initial consciousness, i.e. the eighth or àlaya-vijnàna, from which arises consciousness.
. The first of the three asamkhyeya or incalculable kalpas.
. The initial resolve or mind of the novice.
. The first stage of dhyàna meditation.
. Devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all sexuality.
. The first dhyàna, the first degree of dhyàna meditation, which produces rebirth in the first dhyàna heavens.
. The first of the four dhyàna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of dhyàna meditation.
. A term of the Dharma-laksana school, the first of the three periods of the Buddha's teaching in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas, etc
. The first of the ten stages, or resting places, of the Bodhisattva.Trụ is the resting place, or stage for a particular course of development; địa is the position or rank attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this place.
. The initial stage on the road to enlightenment.
Sở. A place; where, what, that which, he (etc.) who.
. That by which the mind is circumscribed, i.e. impregnated with the false view that the ego and things possess reality.
. Parijneya (S). To be known accurately.
. The subject of the thesis of a syllogism in contrast with the predicate; that which is differentiated.
. That which is brought forward or out; a quotation.
. Alambana (S). That upon which something rests or depends, hence object of perception; that which is the environmental or contributory cause; attendant circumstances.
. Adhipati-pratyàya (S). The influence of one factor in causing others, one of the .
. Cariyàpitaka (P). Collection of the conducting.
. The one which is transformed or instructed.
. That one has, what there is, whatever exists.
. A thesis; that which is set up.
. That which is estimated; the content of reasoning, or judgment.
. Nisyandabuddha (S).
. Upaklista (S). That which is soiled, or stained.
. That which is done, or to be done, or made, or set up etc.
. That which is expouded, explained, or commented on.
. Jneyàvarana (S). Hindrance of the one's own knowledge; the barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.
. That on which all knowledge depends, i.e. the àlayavijnàna, the other vijnànas being derived from it.
. Asraya (S). That on which anything depends, the basis of the vijnànas. Abode, deposit.
Sơn. A hill, mountain; a monastery.
. Sàgara varadhara buddhi vikrìdità bhidjna (S) The name under which Ananda is to reappear as Buddha.
. The gate of a monastery; a monastery.
. Hill-monk, self deprecatory term used by monks. A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.
. Mountain world, i.e. monasteries.
Súc. To rear, feed, domesticate; restrain; cattle.
. Tirascina (S). Animals, beasts. . Tirascinayoni (S). Rebirth as an animal; animal womb.
. The way of rebirth as an animal.
. The animal kingdom.
. The cause, or karma, og rebirth as an animal.
. The destiny of rebirth as an animal.
. Namasyà (S). Veneration, worship.
Sư. Upàdhyàya (S). A host, army; a leader, preceptor, teacher, model, Buddhist priest. Spiritual teacher.
. The Mother Superior (of a Buddhist nunnery).
. A senior bonze.
. Model teacher. Vạn thế , the master of all times, i.e. Confucius .
. A buddhist nun. Also .
. The superior of a Buddhist monastery, Buddhist abbot.
. The teacher's duty.
. Teacher and student, master and pupil; junior fellow-student.
. Teacher and student.
. A profligate bonze.
. Master and elder; senior fellow-student.
. Master and friends.
. Mistress; master's wife.
Sư nói sư phải, vãi nói vãi hay. There's a reason for everything.
. Guru, master, teacher.
. To treat as a preceptor or teacher.
. Disciple of a disciple.
. The teacher of one's teacher. Patriarch.
. Transmitted directly from the teacher.
. Master; superior.
. Simha (S). A lion. Buddha, likened to the lion, the king of animals, in respect of his fearlessness.
. Simhaghosa (S). "Lion's voice", a Buddha south-east of our universe, third son of Mahàbhijna.
. The joyous samàdhi which is likened to the play of the lion with his prey. When a Buddha enters this degree of samàdhi he causes the earth to tremble, and the purgatories to give up their inmates.
. Buddhasimha (S)
. Simhahànu (S). Great father of the Buddha.
. Simhanàda (S). The lion's roar, a term designating authoritative or powerful preaching. As the lion's roar makes all the animals tremble, so Buddha's preaching overthrows all other religions, subdues devils, conquers heretics, and arrests the misery of life.
. Lion's milk, like bodhi-enlightenment, which is able to annihilate countless ages of the karma of affliction.
. The lion aroused to anger, i.e. the Buddha's power of arousing awe.
. Simhala (S). Sri-Lanka.
. Simhàsana (S). A lion throne, or couch. A Buddha throne or seat; wherever the Buddha sits, even the bare ground; a royal throne.
. Aryasimha (S). The 24th patriarch.
, . Harivarman (S)
. Just as no animal eats a dead lion, but it is destroyed by worms produced within itself, so no outside force can destroy Buddhism, only evil monks within it can destroy it.
. Simdhadhvaja (S). "Lion-flag", a Buddha south-east of our universe, fourth son of Mahàbhijna.
. The lion king, Buddha.
Sự. Artha (S). Affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phenomena; to serve. It is "practice", or the thing, affair, matter in contrast with lí theory, or the underlying principle.
. Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvàna, such as desire etc.; are noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrines, etc.
. Salvation by observing the five commandments (precepts), the ten good deeds, etc.
. Phenomenal fire; also fire-worship.
. Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenom, activity and principle, or the absolute; phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither changes nor acts, it is the .
. The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a term ođ the school.
. Discussion of phenomena in contrast with lí luận.
. The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. , the Buddha-nature in practice. Lí , the Buddha-nature in principle or essence, or the truth itself.
. Vastuprativikalpa-vijnàna (S). Knowledge of the discriminating of things.
. Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by of the Tripitaka or Hìnayàna teaching as within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness; and the different teaching as outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still involved in the transient.
. No obstruction between thing and thing; each "thing-event" involves every other, and is seen to be self-determinative, self-generated.
. Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography. Story, tale.
. Conventional truth.
. Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called as contrasted with their open teaching called bộ. , a mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach.
Sử. To send, cause; a messenger sứ; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp as klesa, affliction, distress, wordly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112 and 128 such troublers, e.g. desire, hatred, stupour, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc. leading to painful results in future rebirths, they are karma-messengers executing its purpose.