. Ahaha (S), Cold hell . Also .
. Harìtakì (S). Yellow myrobalan. Also Ha tử (cây).
Hạ. Hìna, Adharà (S). Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down.
. Those (born) with base character or of low capacity.
. The seven lower orders of disciples.
. The lower regions of the ; also the lower half of the in the fifty two grades of bodhisattva development.
. To descend from the hall.
. The lower, or human world.
( ). Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vow of a bodhisattva, thượng cầu above, to seek bodhi.
. One of the four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his livelihood by bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs etc.
. The inferior, mean yàna, a scornful term for Hìnayàna.
. To come into the world.
. The tree lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitàbha Pure Land.
. Xem .
. Summer retreat.
. Inferior candles, junior monks.
. To come into the world.
. First day of the summer retreat of the monk.
. The lower yàna, i.e. Hìnayàna.
. Junior monk.
. The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments.
. Haklenayasa (S). 23th Indian patriarch.
Hải. Sàgara (S). The ocean, the sea.
. The ocean symbol, indicating the vastness of the meditation of the Buddha, the vision of all things.
. Ocean pearls, things hard to obtain.
. Ocean assembly, i.e. a great assembly of monks, the whole body of monks.
. The eight virtues, or powers of the ocean, i.e. vastness, tidal regularity, throwing out of the dead, containing the seven kinds of pearls, absorption of all rivers, of all rains without increase, holding the most mighty fish, universal unvarying saltness.
. The assembly of the saints; also a cemetery.
. The Ocean-nàga, or Dragon King of the ocean.
. Santal Uragasàra (S).
. The ocean-tide voice. i.e. of the Buddha.
. Ràga (S). Lust, greed.
. Jìvitàkàma (S). Will to live.
Hàm. To hold in the mouth; cherish; restrain.
. To feel grateful to s.o. for sth.
. Sàgara (S). Ocean of nàgas.
, ngậm máu phun người. To make false charge against s.o.
. Living beings, all beings possessing life, especially sentient life
. All sentient beings.
, . To restrain one's anger.
. To suffer an injustice; to harbour a grievance.
. Sattva (S). Creature, living being.
. To contain much that is suggestive.
. Àlaya-vijnàna (S). The Eighth consciousness.
. To smile. Cánh hoa : fresh blown flower.
. All beings possessing feeling, sentience.
. All sentient beings.
. Ahaha (S). Cold hell. Also .
. Sìtavana (S) Cold forest using as cemetery. Also .
. Samsvedaja (S). Birth from moisture, moisture sprung. Also .
. To overcome demons.
. Abhicàraka (S). Exorciser; subjugator (of demons)
Hành, Hạnh. Samskàras (S). Go, act, do, perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. Mental formation; wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity. Karma formation.
. Action and proof; knowledge or assurance derived from doing; practice of religious discipline and the resulting enlightenment.
. A wandering, itinerant monk.
. To walk in the way, follow the Buddha-truth.
. An abbot's attendant; also àcàrin, performing the duties of a disciple; parivràjaka (S) wandering religious.
. To carry out the vinaya discipline; hạnh giáo: the vinaya.
. To go and convert
. Caityacàrikà (S). To go on a pilgrimage; to burn incense.
. To go begging, or asking for alms.
. Samskàra-dukkhatà (S). Suffering inherent in the formations.
. To celebrate, to officiate; to take or conduct the service.
. That which is done, the activities of thought, word, or deed; karma; hạnh nghiệp: moral action.
. Action and vow, act and vow, resolve or intention; to act out one's vow, to vow.
. A traveller, wayfarer, a follower of Buddha; a disciple.
. Dandakamma (P). Act of punishment.
. Deed and result; the inevitable sequence of act and its effect.
Hành, Trụ, Tọa, Ngọa. Walking, standing, sitting, lying - in every state.
. Activity; performance; mental activity.
. To take an image (of Buddha) in procession.
, ấm. Samskàra-skandha (S). Mental formation group.
. Caryà (S). Conduct, behaviour.
.� Upeksa (S). Equanimity.
. Good appearance, omen, or sign
, Tỳ khiêu. Ehi, bhiksu. (S) Come! O! Monk!
Hắc. Kàla, krsna (S). Black; dark.
. Dark, dim, dusky, murky.
. Black and white, evil and good; also the two halves of the month, the waning and waxing moon.
. Black karma, or evil deeds which produce like karmaic results.
. Black venimous snake.
. Krsnakarma (S). The darkening, or latter half of the month, the period of the waning moon. 2nd fortnight of a lunar month.
. Krsnakarna (S). A goddess.
. Black wind, i.e. a dark storm.
. Black sap of the pine tree.
. Kàla-sùtra (S). The black-rope or black-bonds hell.
. Mahà-kàla (S). The black deva, a title of Siva.
Hằng. Constant; perseverence; persistence.
. Gangà (S). The river Ganges.
, cát . Gangà-nadì-vàlukà (S). Sand of the Ganges.
. Constant, regular.
Hận, ghét, ghê tởm. Pratigha (S). Anger, repugnance. ill-will.
. Dvesa (S). Hatred.
Hậu. After, behind, later, posterior.
. The retribution received in further incarnation (for theddeds done in this life)
, . Detailed, or specific, knowledge or wisdom succeding upon or arising from fundamental knowledge.
. Future karma; the person in the subsequent incarnation; also, the final incarnation of the arhat, or bodhisattva.
. Ghanavyuha sùtra (S). Kògonkyô (J)
. The body or person in the next stage of transmigration.
. The life after this; later generations, or ages.
Hệ. To fasten, attach to, connect; think of, be attached to, fix the thoughts on; link; succession; system.
. To be involved in.
. To keep in mind; to never forget; to memorize.
. To fix the thoughts on one thing.
(phọc). To fasten, tie; tied to. e.g. things, or the passions.
. Cittàkalàpa (S). Mental system.
. Hiranyavati (S). Name of a river.
. Himavant (S). Himalaya.
. Vain discussion.
Hỉ. Priti, ànanda (S). Joy; glad; delighted; rejoyce; to like.
Hỉ duyệt, hỉ lạc. Pleased, delighted.
. Priyadarsana (S). Joyful to see, beutiful; name of a kalpa kiếp.
. Sudarsana (S). The city beautiful, the chief city, or capital, of the thirty three Indra heavens.
. Trayastrimsàs (S). The thirty three devas, or gods of Indra's heavens, on the summit of Meru.
. The "patience" of joy, achieved on beholding by faith Amitàbha and his Pure-Land; one of the .
. Tusita (S)
(thọ). The sensation, or receptivity, of joy; to receive with pleasure.
. Joyful giving.
Hiền. Bhadra (S). August, auspicious; moral, virtuous, worthy; able. talented.
. Exalted virtue.
. Upananda (S). Name. Also .
. Bhadrapàla-Bodhisattva (S). Name.
. Bhadra kalpa (S). Lucky kalpa.
. Bhadrakalpika-sùtra (S). Sùtra of the Lucky Kalpa.
. Avihimsa (P). Absence of cruelty, humanity.
. Rsi, rs (S). Sage, seer, holyman.
. Bhadràyanìya (S). Name of a Buddhist sect.
Hiện. Appear, apparent; manifest, visible; now; presnt; ready.
. Present life recompense for good or evil done in the present life.
. Abhisamaya (S). The immediate realization of enlightenment, or nirvàna; abhisamaya, inner realization; pratyaksa, immediate perception, evidence of the eye or other organ.
. Abhisambuddha (S). Name. Also .
. Now going, or proceeding; present or manifest activities.
. Bhava (S). Existence, process of existence.
. The phenomenal radiance of Buddha which shines out when circumstances require it, as contrasted to his noumenal radiance which is constant.
. Reasoning from the manifest, pratyaksa, (1)-Immediate, or direct reasoning, whereby the eye apprehends and distinguish colour and form,the ear sound etc. (2)-Immediate insight into, or direct inference in a trance định of all the conditions of the àlayavijnàna.
. The Samàdhi which enables to manifest in all forms of physical body.
. Insight into, or meditation on, immediate presentations.
. Xem .
. Now, at present, the present.
. The present world.
. The present bhadra-kalpa.
. Now present, manifest before one.
. Abhimukhì (S). The six of the ten stages of the bodhisattva.
. The present body. Also the various bodies or manifestations in which the Buddhas and bodhisattvas reveal themselves.
. The present world.
. Direct knowledge, manifesting wisdom, another name of the àlayya-vijnàna; also the "representation-consciousness", or perception of an external world, one of the theo . Khyàti (S). Opinion, idea.
Hiển. To be evident, to exhibit, to display, to appear, to be illustrious; manifest, prominent.
. To exalt, dignify, enoble.
. Prackaranàryacàva (S).
. (Of divinity, deceased person) to make one's appearance; to make one's presence felt; (of miracle) to reveal itself, to make itself manifest.
. To come out to appear.
Hiệp (Hợp). Bring together, unite, unisson, in accord.
. To bring the ten fingers, or two palms together; join palms; a monk's salutation.
. Xem .
. Pàrsva (S). 10th Indian patriarch.
Hình. Form, figure, apparence, the body.
. Nimitta (S). Sign, image, mark, outward appearance. Also .
. Form, apparence.
. The desire awakened on seeing a beautiful form.
. Samsthànarùpa (S). The characteristics of form - long, short, square, round, high, low, straight, crooked.
. Pratimà (S). An image or likeness (of Buddha).
Hoa. Kusuma; puspa; padma (S). A flower, blossom; flowery; especially the lotus; pleasure, vice; to spend, waste, profligate; splendour, glory, ornate; to decorata; China.
. Flower-recompense, i.e. flowers to him who cultivates them, and fruit corresponding to the seed sown.
. Avatamsaka (S). A garland, a ring-shaped ornament, the flower-adorned.
. Avatamsaka-sùtra (S), Kégon kyo (N), Hua yen king (H)
. The Avatamsaka school, whose foundation work is the Avatamsaka-sùtra.
. Mallikà (S). Jasmin flower.
. Padmaprabha (S). Lotus-radiance, the name by which Sàriputra is to be known as a Buddha.
. Padma (S). Lotus, rose lotus.
. Kamala (S). Red lotus.
. Pundarìka (S). White lotus.
. Puskara, utpala (S). Blue lotus.
. The lotus-store, or lotus-world, the Pure Land of Vairocana, also the Pure Land of all Buddhas in their enjoyment bodies.
. Kusumapura, Pusapura (S). The city of flowers, also known as Pàtaliputra, the modern Patna. It was the residence of King Asoka, he there convoked the third synod.
Hóa. Transform, metamorphose.
. 1-Chủ : the lord of transformation or conversion. 2-Chủ cuộc : one who exhorts believers to give alms for worship, also an almsgiver.
. To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance)
. The merit of converting others.
. Begging appeals made to the public by priests.
. Altar of transformation, i.e. a crematorium.
. To help s.o. work out his own salvation.
. Two lines of teaching.
. Fifth of the six desire-heavens.
. Nirmàna-buddha (S). An incarnate, metamorphosed Buddha.
. Aupapàduka (S). Direct metamorphosis or birth by transformation. Alternation of life and death, or death and reincarnation.
. Nirmana-kaya (S). Buddha's metamorphosic body. Avatar.
. To beg for alms, for food.
Hòa. Harmony; peace; to blend, mix; with, unite with; respond, rhyme.
. To blend, unite, be of one mind, harmonize.
. A sangha, a monastery.
. Vandana (S) Homage, veneration.
. Upàdhyàya (S). Most venerable monk.
. Vàsuki-Nàgaràja (S). King of the Dragon. Also .
Hỏa. Sikhin (S). Fire, flame.
. The fire sign, for which the a triangle pointing upwards is used; a triangular arrangement of fingers of the right hand with the left.
. Citrabhàna (S). Name.
. The fiery dogs - which vomit fire on sinners in hell.
. Fire pearl, or ruby; the ball on top of a pagoda.
. A samàdhi entered into by the Buddha, in which he emitted flames to overcome a poisonous dragon.
. Tejo-dhatù (S). Fire element.
. Fire altar, connected with homa or fire worship; stake; pyre; funeral pile.
. The ruler over the fire star, Mars.
. Fire-worship(ping). pyrolatry.
(đồ). The hells, animals and hungry ghosts i.e. the fiery, bloody and knife-sharp destinies.
. The fiery pit (of the five desires ); also that of the tree ill destinies - the hell, animals, hungry ghosts.
. Whirling fire, e.g. fire whirled in a circle, the whole circle seeming to be on fire, emblem of illusion; a fire wheel.
. A sign made by putting the double fists together and opening the index fingers to form a fire-sign, a triangle.
. Àvìchi (S). Xem .
. The scorching hell, where sinners are burnt up.
. Fire-light, flame. : the flame dhyàna by which the body is self-immolated.
. A flame-emitting samàdhi, the power to emit flame from the body for auto-holocaust, or other purposes.
. The conflagration catastrophe, for world destruction.
. Jhàpita (S). Cremation. Also .
. Agni (S). Fire. Vedic fire god.
. Bhasmìkaroti (S). To incinerate.
. The fire devas shown as the 12th group in the diamond court of Garbadhàtu.
. The parable of the burning house; one of the seven parables in the Lotus sùtra.
. Monks in a burning house, i.e. married monks.
. Accumulated fires (of hell); accumulating one's own hell-fires; the body as a heap of fire, i.e. to be feared; the fire of angry passions.
. The fiery chariot (belonging to the hells).
. Fire-vomitting serpents in the hells.
Hoại. To go to ruin, decay, perish, destroy, spoil, worn out, rotten. bad.
. Vipàrinàma-dukkhatà (S). Suffering inherent in the changing.
. Samvarta (S). The periodical gradual destruction of a universe, one of the four kalpas, i.e. thành vivarta, formation; trụ vivarta-siddha, abiding or existence; hoại samvarta, decay or destruction; diệt samvarta-siddha, final annihilation.
. Any process of destruction, or decay; to burn the bones of a deceased person so that they may not draă him in rebirth.
. Kasàya (S). A brown colour; but it is described as a neutral colour through the dyeing out of the other colours, i.e. for the monks.
. Vajravidàranà-dhàrani (S). Sùtra.
Hoan. Nanda (S). Pleased, glad.
. Nanda (S). Pleased, glad. Rejoycing.
. Pramudità-bhùmi (S). The Bodhisattva's stage of joy.
. The festival of All Souls.
. The happy day of the Buddha, and of the order, i.e. the ending of the retreat, 15th day of the 7th moon.
. Buddha of joyful light, Amitàbha.
Hoàn. To return; repay; still; yet.
. To return to nirvàna and escape from the backward flow to transmigration.
, . Return of courtesy, of a salute, of incense offered etc.
. To return to the source, i.e. abandon illusion and turn to enlightenment.
. To return to life; to be reborn in this world; to be reborn from the Hinayàna nirvàna in order to be able to attain the Mahàyàna Buddhahood; also, restoration to the order, after repentance for sins.
. To return to lay life, leave the monastic order.
, Huỳnh giáo. Geloups-pas (Tib). Yellow hat sect.
, Huỳnh môn. Eunuque. Hermaphrodite.
. Xem .
Hoạt. Jiva, jivaka (S). Alive, living, lively, revive, movable.
. A living Buddha, i.e. a reincarnation Buddha, e.g. Hutuktu, Dalai Lama etc.
Hoặc. Moha (S). Illusion, delusion, doubt, unbelief; it is also used for klesa, passion, temptation, distress, care, trouble.
. The hindrance, or obstruction of the delusive passions to entry into truth.
. Illusion, accordant action, and suffering; the pains arising from a life of illusion.
. A deluded person; to delude others.
. The taint of delusion, the contamination of illusion.
. The way or direction of illusion, delusive objective, intp. as deluded in fundamental principles.
. The bond of illusion, the delusive bondage of desire to its environment.
Học. Siks (S). To study, learn, the process of acquiring knowledge; learning.
. To learn (good) manners.
. Fellow-students, the company of monks who are studying.
., . Siksamàna (S)
Học, . One who is still learning, and one who has attained. Học is to study religion in order to get rid of illusion; begins when illusion is cast off.
. To bow and kneel.
. Vicikitsà (S). Septic doubt.
Hộ. To protect, guard, succour.
. The five guardian-spirits of each of the five commandments.
. Homa (S). Oblation, Ritual offering.
. Protection of life.
. Prabhpàla (S). Name.
. To guard and care for, protect and keep in mind.
. Pàladharma, Dharmapàla (S). To protect or maintain the Buddha-truth. God protectors of the dharma.
. The four Lokapàlas, or Ràstrapàlas, who protect a country.
. Ràstrapàlapari-prcchà (S). Sùtra.
. Protection of the body .
. The four Lokapàlas, each protecting one of the four quarters of space, the guardians of the world and of Buddhist faith.
Hối. Ksama, Ksamayati (S).
. Khamàpanà (P). Asking for pardon.
Hối pháp, , Ksamayati (S). Repentance rites.
. Parinàmanà (S). To transfer, to dedicate to.
. Patidàna (S). To transfer the merit to. Transferring merit.
. To turn the light inwards on oneself, concern oneself withone's own duty.
. To repent. To turn the mind from evil to good.
. To turn from Hinayana to Mahayana.
Hôn. Dusk, dull, confused.
. Dark, dim, gloomy, dusky.
, . The drum, or bell at dusk.
. The dim city, the abode of the common, unenlightened man.
. Dull, or confused, knowledge.
. Thìna (S). To loose consciousness; to be in comma.
Hồn. Soul, spirit; mind, wits, faculties, conscious mind.
. Animus and anima; the spiritual nature or mind, and the animal soul.
Hồng. Aruna, rakta (S). Red.
. The red sect, i.e. the Zva-dmar, or Shama, the older Lamaistic sect of Tibet, who wear red clothes and hats.
. Pàdma-naraka (S). Red lotus hell, the seventh of the eight cold hells. where the flesh of the sufferers bursts open like red lotuses.
Hồng. Flood, inundation; great, immense, vast, extensive.
. Great mercy, blessing.
. Big bell.
. Great name.
. Eighty-eight Buddhas repentance ceremony.
. Vast happiness.
. Pràna (S). Breath, life. Also sự sống.
Hue�. Xem Tuệ.
. Vibhavatrsnà (S). Craving for self-annihilation.
Huyền. Dark, sombre, black; abstruse, obscure, deep, profound.
. Unreal; illusive; illusive; illusory; vague
. Mysterious mechanism; great mystery; occult cause; mysticism.
. Marvellous, miraculous.
. The profound doctrine, Buddhism.
. Hsuan-Chio (C). A Wenchow monk, also named , he is said to have attained to enlightenment in one night , author of Song of Enlightenment.
. The black-robed sect of monks.
. The profound school, i.e. Buddhism.
. The deep meaning; the meaning of the profound.
. A commentator of the Dharmalaksana school during the Đường dynasty.
. Yhe profound scriptures, codes.
. The profound principles, or propositions, i.e. Buddhism.
. Hsuan Tsang, Hsuan Chuang, Hiuen Tsang, Hiouen Tsang, Yuan Tsang Yuan Chwang (C).
The famous pilgrim to India, whose surname was Trần, personal name Vĩ, native of , AD 600-664. It is said that he entered a monastery at 13 years of age, and in 618 with his elder brother, who had preceded him in becoming a monk, went to , the capital, where in 622 he was fully ordained. Finding that China possessed only half of the Buddist classics, he took his staff, bound his feet, and on foot, braved the perils of the deserts and mountains of Central Asia. The date of his setting out is uncertain (629 or 627) but the year of his arrival in India is given as 633; after visiting and studying in many parts of India, he returned home, reaching the capital in 645, was received with honour and presented his collection with 657 works, ‘besides many images and pictures and one hundred and fifty relics’ to the Court. Thái Tông, the emperor, gave him the in which to work. He presented the manuscript of his famous Record of Western Countries in 646 and completed it as it now stands by 648. The emperor Cao Tông called him to Court in 653 and gave him the in which to work, a monastery which ever after was associated with him; in 657 he removed him to Ngũ and made that place a monastery. He translated seventy five works in 1335 quyển. In India he receives the titles of Mahàyànadeva and Moksadeve; he was also known as Tripitaka Teacher of Dharma. He died in 664.
. Deep, or abstruse response.
. Profound and subtle; undecipherable.
Huyễn. Confused vision; illusion; deceptive, unreal, illusive; changeable.
. Màyà (S). Fraud, deceit.
. Magical changes.
. Letter svastika on the chest of Buddha.
Hư. Sùnya (S). Empty, vacant; unreal, unsubstantial, untrue; space; humble; in vain. Hư is defined as that which is without shape or substantiality.
. Illusory, unreal; utopian, chimerical. Chốn : the land of fancy; utopia. Bày trò : to create utopia.
. Musàvado (S). Untrue or misleading talk, which is against the fourth precept.
Hư gia. Mithyà (S). Baseless, false.
. Sùnya (S). Empty, void, space; nothingness.
. Abiding in space.
. Àkàsa-dhàtu (S). The visible vault of space.
. The Dharmakàya as being like space which enfolds all things, omniscient and pure.
. Àkàsagarbha, Gaganagarbha Bodhisattva (S). The central Bodhisattva in the court of space in the garbhadhàtu group; guardian of the treasury of all wisdom and achievement.
. The four heavens of desire above Meru in space, from the Yama heaven upwards.
tru. Àkàsa-pratisthita (S). Abiding in space.
. Àkàsa (S). One of the asamskrta dharmas, passive void or space; two kinds of space, or the immaterial, are named, the active and passive, or phenomenal and non phenomenal (i.e. noumenal)
. Vitatha (S). Unreal, deceptive; false, untrue; deceitful.
. With humble mind or heart.
. Vitatha (S). Unreal and false; baseless; abhùta, non existent.
. Prapancadarsana (S). Pervaerted views (on the existence).
. Unreal things or sensations.
. Abhùta-parikalpa (S). Wrong opinion, discriminated opinion.
Hư vo�. Empty, non exsistent, unreal, incorporeal, immaterial.
Hương. Gandha (S). Fragrance; incense; the sense of smell, i.e. one of the sadayàtana, six senses. Incense is one of the Buddha's messenger to stimulate faith and devotion. Odour, olfactive object, scent
. Xem .
. Xem .
. Incense-stick, joss-stick.
. The desire for fragrance, the lust of the nasal organ, one of the five desires.
. The incense hall, especially the large hall of the triratnà .
. Incense and flowers.
Hương (Quang Trang) Nghiêm. The one whose mind mediatates on Buddha becomes interpenetrated and glorified by Buddha-fragrance (and light).
. The sense of smell and its organ, the nose.
. Gandhaprabhasa-buddha (S)
, Chùa Hương. An incense ksetra, i.e. a monastery.
. Gandhamàdana (S). Incense mountain.
. The name of the western-Buddha-land in which Àkàsa Bodhisattva lives.
. Gandhahastì (S). Fragrant elephant; one of the sixteen honoured ones of the Bhadra-kalpa.
. A fragrant liquid made of thirty-two ingredients, used by the secret sect in washing the body at the time of initiation.
. The gods of fragrance (and music), i.e. the Gandharvas who live on Gandhamàdana; the musicians ođ Indra.
. Gandhakutì (S). House of incense, i.e. where Buddha dwells, a temple.
. Liquid scent, or perfume.
. Money given to monks.
. The scented ocean surrounding Sumeru .
. Gandhotama-Buddha (S)
. The Buddha of fragrance land.
. The atom or element of smell, olfactive object.
Hương tru. The fragrant kitchen, i.e. a monastery kitchen.
Hữu. Bhàva (S). That which exists, the existing, existence; to have, possess, be. Process of existence.
. Bhàvatrsnà (S). Craving for the existence.
(sắc). The manifested activities of body, mouth and mind (or will) in contrast with their unmanifested activities.
, . Sarvàstivàda (S). The schol of reality of all phenomena.
. Things that have an owner.
. Those who have the cause, link, or connection, i.e. are influenced by and responsive to the Buddha.
. Something more; those who have remainder to fulfil, e.g. of karma; incomplete; extra; additional.
. Sopadhisesa-nirvàna (S) Nirvàna with the groups of existence still remaining. Incomplete nirvàna.
. Pratigha; sapratigha (S). Resistance, opposition; opposing, opposite.
, . Akanistha (S). The highest heaven of form, the ninth and last of the fourth dhỳna heavens.
. Interrupted, not continuous, not intermingled, opposite of .
. The realistic school as opposed to the teaching of unreality; especially (1) The Hìnayàna teaching of the , Abhidharma-kosa school of Vasubhandu, opposed to the Satya-siddi school of Harivarman; (2) The Mahà-yàna Dharma-laksana school, also called , founded in China by Hsuan tsang, opposed to the Màdhyamika school of Nàgàrjuna.
. The realm of existence.
. Physical material. : physical, material world.
. Saiksa (S). In Hìnayàna, those in the first three stages of training as arhat, the fourth and last stage being those beyaond the need of further teaching or study. There are eighteen grades of saiksa.
. The bond of existence, or mortal life.
. The visible; erronous view that things really exist; another meaning is realm of form.
. Upadhi-nirvàna (S).
. Phenomenal and noumenal; the manifold forms of things exist, but things, being constructed of elements, have no per se reality.
. The phenomenal and the noumenal are identical, the phenomenal expresses the noumenal and the noumenal contains the phenomenal.
. Àsràva (S). "Outflow, discharge"; unclean; impure; wordly; cankers, mental intoxicants.
. The way of mortal samsàra, in contrast with that of nirvàna.
thế, . The world, or worlds of distress and illusion.
(ác) pháp. Good (or evil) done in a mortal body is rewarded accordingly in the character of another mortal body.
tịnh đo�. A purifying stage which, for certain types, precedes entry into Pure Land.
. Having souls, sentient beings, similar to ; possessing magical or spiritual powers.
. Limited, finite; opposite of measureless, boundless, infinite.
. Sat-Asat (S). To be, not to be.
. Mental activity, the mind being able to climb, or reach anywhere, in contrast with the non-mental activities, which are duyên.
. Have attainment, strong point, forte.
. To have affairs, functioning, phenomenal, idem ; occupied, engaged, employed, busy. Khi : in case of need, of emergency, of necessity; if necessary, when required.
. Xem .
. Satkàya (S). Existing body. : the body with its five senses.
. Satkàyadarsana (S). Believing in the existence of ego.
. Theistic; theism; theist.
. A thing, form, dharma, anything of ideal or real form; embodied things, bodies.
. Perceptive beings, similar to sentient beings.
. To have the nature, i.e. to be a Buddhist, have the bodhi-mind, in contrast with absence of mind, i.e. the icchanti, or unconverted.
. Sattva (S). Any sentient being.
. To have form, whatever has form, whether ideal or real.
. The first twelve years of the Buddha's teaching, when he treated the phenomenal as real.
. Action through faith in the idea, e.g. of the Pure Land; the acts which produce such results.
. Realistic sect. Xem .
. To have thoughts, or desires, opp .
. Samskrta (S). Active, creative, productive, functioning, causative, effective. phenomenal, the process resulting from the law of karma, v. ; opposite of . The three active things are sắc material, or things which have form, tâm mental and neither the one nor the other.
. The permutation of activity, or phenomene, in arising, abiding, change, and extinction.
. The unreality of the phenominal.
. The result or effect of action.
sinh tư. The mortal samsàra life of births and deaths, contrasted with effortless mortality, e.g. transformation such as that of the Bodhisattva.
. Activity implies impermanency.
. Bhàvàbhàva (S). Existence or non existence, being or non being; these two opposite views, opinions, or theories are the basis of all erroneous views etc.
Hữu y. Mati; matimant (S). Possessing mind, intelligent.