Ma. Màra (S). Destroyer, Evil One, Devil; murderer, hinderer. disturber destroyer. He is a deva, often represented with a hundred arms and riding on an elephnt. He sends his daughters, or assume monstruous forms or inspires wicked men, to seduce or frighten the saints. He resides with legions of subordinates in the heaven Paranirmita Vasavartin situated on the top of the Kàmadhatu. He is also called . There are various categories of màras, e.g. skandha-màra, passion-màra, etc.
, . Màra-pàpiyàn (S). Lord of the sixth desire-heaven.
, con cái ma, . Màrakàyikas (S). Màra's people or subjects.
. Màra-circumstance, or environment, or conditioning cause. i.e. hindering the good.
. Màra-gifts, in contrast of those of Buddha.
. The màra path or way, i.e. one of the six destinies.
. Màra-laws, Màra-rules, i.e. those of monks who seek fame and luxury.
. The realm of the màras.
. Màra-country, i.e. the world.
. Occult force; occult, hidden cause.
. Màra-servitude, the condition of those who obey Màra.
. The daughters of Màra, who tempt men to their ruin.
. Màra-enmity. Màra the enemy of Buddha.
. Màra and Brahmà; i.e. Màra, lord of the sixth desire-heaven, and Brahmà, lord of the heaven of form.
(phược). Màra-cords; màra-bonds.
. The army of Màra.
. Devil, evil spirits.
. Màra-deeds, especially in hindrering Buddha-truth.
. Màra-deva (S). The god of lust, sin and death.
. Màra-dhyàna (S). Evil thoughts, wrong and harmful meditation.
. Magic, wizardry; black magic, the black art; witchcraft, sorcery.
. Xem .
. The net of Màra.
. The king of màras, the lord of the sixth heaven of the desire-realm.
Ma. To feel, handle, rub.
. To pound, pulverize, crush; to undergo difficulties or trials, to go through ordeals. bách chiết, to go through no end of ordeals.
. Màya (S). Mother of the Buddha.
. Xem .
. Màtangi (S). The low caste woman who inveigled Ananda.
Ma đằng, . Màtanga, Kasyapa Màtanga (S). Name.
, Màtanga (S). Human being, low caste, elephant.
. To lay the hand on the top of the head, a custom of Buddha in teaching his disciples.
. Mahoraga (S). Large bellied; a class of demons shaped like the boa.
. Jewel, gem, pearl, precious stone. As wished, or at wish, whoever possesses the pearl receives whatever he desires.
. Mathurà (S). Modern Mutra.
. Maha (S). Great.
Bà xa , . Mahàprajàpatì-Gautami (S). The aunt of the Buddha.
. Mahà Prajnà Paramita (S)
, . Mahàkàsyapa (S). A Brahman of Magadha, disciple of Sàkyamuni; accredited with presiding over the first synod; also with supervising the first compilation of the Buddha's sermons; is reckoned as the first Patriarch.
. Mahàkàtyàyana (S). One of the principal disciples of Sàkyamuni.
. Mahàkausthila (S). One of the princilal disciples of the Buddha.
. Mahàyànadeva (S). A title of .
. Mahàyàna (S) Great vehicle.
, . Mahàdeva (S). Name.
. Mahàjìvaka (S). Name.
. Mahàmàyà (S). Mother of Sàkyamùni.
. Mahàmandàrava (S). A large white lotus.
. Mahàmanjùsakas (S). A red flower yielding the madder (munjeeth of Bengal)
, . Mahàmaudgalyàyana (S) One of the ten great disciples of the Buddha.
Na man, . Mahànàma (S). One of the five first disciples of the Buddha.
. Mahàsattva (S). Great being, one with great compassion and energy, who brings salvation to all living beings; a Bodhisattva.
, sinh. Xem .
. Mahàsamga (S)
. Mahàsàmghika (S). Name of a Buddhist sect. Also .
. The great canon of monastic rules.
. Mahàvairocana (S) The Great Sun-Buddha.
, . Mahàvaipulyabuddha-sùtra (S)
. Mahendra (S). Name.
. Mahesrava (S). A heaven in the realm of form.
. Maghadha (S). Name of a country.
. Màra (S). The Evil One, the Death personified, Death. Also , .
. Màricì (S). Name of a heaven. Also Dương diệm, thiên.
. Màricì-dhàrani (S). Sùtra.
. Manatà (S). Xem .
. Manàsvin-nàga-ràja (S). Name of a Dragon-King.
. Manomayakàya (S). Body formed by the magic power of the mind. Also , .
. Xem .
Mã. Asva (S). A horse; a stallion; one of the seven treasures of a sovereign.
. A retractable penis; e.g. that of the horse, one of the thirty two signs of Buddha.
. The horse-head ràksasa in Hades.
. Hayagriva (S). The horse-head , in awe-inspiring attitude towards evil spirit.
. Horse grain, Buddha's food when he spent three months with the Brahmin ruler Agnidatta with 500 monks, one of his ten sufferings.
. Asvaghosa (S). The famous writer of , Mahàyàna-sraddhotpàda-sàstra.
, . Asvajit (S). Horse-breaker, horse-master. One of the first five disciples of the Buddha.
. Ma-tsu (C). Baso (J).Founder of the Southern Peak school of the Thiền, or Intuitional sect in , known as .
. Asvamedha (S). Name of a Buddhist sect.
. The horse-park, i.e. , the White Horse Monastery at in the Hậu Hán dynasty, where the first missionaries dwelt.
Mạn. Màna (S). Pride, arrogance, self-conceit, looking down on others, supercilious.
. Mandala (S). A symbolic geometrical diagram wherein deities are invoked. The threefold mandala is dedicated to the spiritual forces presiding over, or manifesting through the body, the speech, and the mind of man. Magical circle.
. The bondage of pride.
. Pride, regarding oneself as superior, one of the ten wrong views.
. The pit, or pitfall of pride.
. Pride as high as a mountain.
. The messenger, or lictor of pride.
. Proud, arrogant thoughts
. Pride as a banner rearing itself aloaf.
. Pride as a karma.
Mãn. Pùrna (S). Full, whole, complete.
. The full moon honoured one, Buddha.
. The whole commandments, i.e. of the monk.
. The fruit, or karma which fills out the details of any incarnation, as distinguished from which determines the type, e.g. man, animal, etc., of that incarnation.
. Xem .
. A complete or full assembly; also the last day of the general assembly.
. Fully complete, perfect.
. The complete word, i.e. Mahàyàna, as compared with , half word or incomplete word of Hìnayàna.
. The Mahàyàna or greater vehicle.
Mạt. Branch, twig; end; dust; not.
. Madhyàntika (S). Name. Also , Trung .
, Đạo. Marga (S). Track, path, way, the way.
. Maskarin Gosàliputra (S). A heretical teacher.
. Mallikà (S). Queen Mallikà.
, Ý. Manas, mana, mano (S). Intellectual functioning of consciousness.
. Mananavijnànam (S). The seventh consciousness.
, . Mani (S). A jewel, a crystal, a pearl, symbol of purity.
. Manusyà (S). Men, humen.
. Pascimadharma (S). Period of degeneration and extinction of the Buddha Law.
. The third and last period of a Buddha-kalpa.
. Brahmadanda (S). A punishment by stopping all communications with others. Also .
Mặc chiếu, mặc khải. To reveal, disclose.
. To agree, consent tacitly.
. To recognize tacitly.
. To meditate, to muse upon sth. . To be in a brown study; to be lost in thought.
Mắt. Caksu (S). Eye.
. Màmsacaksu (S). Human eye, physical eye. Also , .
Mật. Closed in; close together; intimate; quiet. still; secret, occult, esoteric; fine, small; contrasted with hiển open, exoteric.
. The esoteric digital sign of a Buddha or bodhisattva indicative of his vow.
. The motive power, or fundamental element in the esoteric.
. Abhinivesasamdhi (S). Solid attachment. Also .
. Dhàrani (S). A dhàrani, or esoteric incantation. Magical formula. Also .
. Tantra (S). Esoteric teaching. Tantrism.
. Esoteric practice, or discipline.
. The esoteric name of Vairocana; also any "true words" or esoteric spells.
. The foundation texts of the esoteric school, i.e. the and and various sùtras.
. Sannagarika (S). A Buddhist sect. Also .
. Esoteric meaning, or doctrine.
. The Pure Land of Vairocana.
. Occult or esoteric expressions.
. The esoteric, occult, recondite cause.
. Esoteric methods.
. The esoteric canon.
. Secret or invisible track.
. Vajrapàni (S). Guardian of Buddha, driving away all yaksa disturbers, a form of Indra.
. The esoteric, mantra, sect Tantrism.
. The esoteric letter of Vairocana, or of a Buddha, a bodhisattva.
. Muni (S). Sage.
. Mudrà (S). Seal, mystic signs.
Mê. Màyà (S). Delude, deceive, confuse, mislead; selusion, illusion, etc.
. Deluded, confused, to delude and upset.
. The way of sins; the misleading path. Lạc vào , to be in maze.
. Any world of illusion.
. Bhrànti (S). Error, ill conduct; deluded and confused, deceived in regard to reality. To seduce; to lead astray; to beguile; to fascinate
. Deluded in regard to the fundamental principle, i.e. ignorant of reality.
. Meru, sumeru (S). Meru mount. Also .
. Deluded and sunk (in the passions).
, bờ mê. The shore of delusion.
. Illusion and enlightenment.
. Illusion and enlightenment fundamentally are the same.
. In the "Four Noble Truths" that of "accumulation" is caused by illusion, with suffering as effect; that of "the way" is caused by enlightenment, with extinction of suffering as effect.
. Illusion and enlightenment are the two aspects of the one reality, as water and ice are the same substance.
. Incantations to delude or confuse others.
. All deluded beings.
. Delusive phenomena, or affairs, deluded in regard to phenomena.
. A deluded mind.
, bến mê. The ford of delusion, i.e. mortality.
. Superstition, superstitious.
. The deluded son who held a gold coin in his hand while starving in poverty; such is the man with Buddha-nature who fails to use it.
. Deluded and misled; deluding and false.
Mệnh (mạng). Jìvita (S). Life, vital, length of life, fate, decree.
. Jìvitindriya (S). A root, or basis for life, or reincarnation, the nexus of Hìnayàna between two life-periods, accepted by Mahàyàna as nominal but not real.
. Life's end; nearing the end.
. A sramana who makes the commandments, meditation, and knowledge his very life, as Ananda did.
Mệnh mệnh, . Jivajivaka, jivamjiva (S). A bird with two heads, a sweet songster.
. Jìva (S). Life. Also .
(trược). Turbidity or decay of the vital principle, reducing the length of life.
. Ùrnà (S). The curl of white hair between the eyebrows of the Buddha, one of the thirty two signs of Buddhahood.
, . Mleccha (S). Barbarians, non-Aryan, heathen, frontier tribes.
Minh. Vidyà (S). Bright, clear, enlightenment; wisdom, wise, to undrestand; knowledge. commonly tr. "ignorance", means an unlightened condition, non perception, before the stirrings of intelligence, belief that the phenomenal is real etc. Higher knowledge, gnosis.
. Xem .
. The bright or clear way; the way of the mantras and dhàranìs.
. Enlightenment Minh in the case of the saint inludes knowledge of future incarnations of self and others, of the past incarnations of self and others, and that the present incarnation will end illusion. In the case of Buddha such knowledege is called Đạt thorough or perfect enlightenment.
(định). A samàdhi in the Bodhisattva's in which there are the bright beginnings of release from illusion. the Bodhisattva who has reached that stage.
. The stage of illumination, or the third of the ten stages .
. Vidyà-carana-sampanna (S). Knowledge-conduct-perfect; Perfect in understanding and conduct, one of the ten epithets of Buddha.
. The inner light, enlightenment censing and overcoming ignorance, like incense perfuming and interpenetrating.
. To understand thoroughly; complete enlightenment.
. Clear and keen (to penetrate all mystery)
. The (powers of) light and darkness, the devas and Yama, gods and demons, also the visible and invisible.
. The bright-moon mani or pearl, emblem of Buddha, Buddhism, the Buddhist scriptures, purity, etc.
. The law or method of mantras, or magic formulae.
. Another name for dhàranì as the queen of mystic knowledge and able to overcome all evil. Also the consort shown in the mandalas.
. The Buddhist canon of the Minh dynasty.
. The enlightened heart.
. The bright spirits, i.e. devas, gods, demons.
. Enlightenment (from ignorance) and release (from desire).
. To believe clearly in Buddha's wisdom (as leading rebirth in the Pure Land).
. Vedagù (P). One who has attained the highest knowledge, e.g. Buddha.
. The three enlightenments , and the three wisdoms .
. Vidyà-ràja (S) A deity, fierce spirits who are the messengers and manifestation of Vairocana's wrath against evil spirits.
. The regions or realms of study which produce wisdom, five in number.
Minh. Darkness, obscurity; deep, Hades; used chiefly in the sense of ignorance, profound, secret, invisible, e.g. opposed to hiển open, manifest.
. Xem .
. Occult expiation (of one's sins).
. The invisible powers - Brahmà, Sakra, Yama; the spirits in general.
. The dark way, or land of darkness, the shades, Hades, preta.
. Xem .
, thổ. Xem .
. The invisible aid of the spiritual powers.
. Hades, or the three lower forms of incarnation, i.e. hell, preta, animal.
. The two regions of the dead and the living.
. Invisible benefit, or merit, i.e. within, spiritual.
. Votive offerings to the dead.
. The unfathomable thought or care of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, beyond the realization of men.
. Entire obscurity, pristine darkness.
. The palace of darkness, Hades.
. The happiness of the dead.
. The primitive dakness (at the beginning of existence).
. Lictors, or messengers of Hades.
. Mysterious, supernatural, omnipresent power.
Mộc. Kàstha (S). Wood, a tree, timber.
. Block-head, a stupid person, one who breaks the commandments.
, . Moksha (S). Deliverance.
. The wooden fish.
. Moksadeva (S). A title of . Also .
Môn. A door; gate; a sect, school, teaching.
. Disciple, fellow student.
, , môn diệp. Vàda (S). The followers, or development of any sect.
. Preceptor, the monk who is recognized as teacher by any family.
. The gate gods or guardians.
Mộng. A dream, a simili of the things of the world.
. Dream and illusion, chimera, the characteristics of all phenomena.
. Chimeric and ephemeral; dream, water bubble.
. To "dream" a thing, to think ođ in a dream, to imagine.
. To see in a dream, to imagine one sees, or has seen.
Mục. Caksuh. The eye, the organ of vision; the head or chief.
. Mucalinda, mucilinda (S). A king of dragon.
. Mukha (S). Mouth, face, entrance.
. Xem .
. Maggaliputra-Tissa (S). Name.
. Eye and foot; knowledge and practice; eyes in the feet.
. Dasanisthàprani-dhàna (S). Ten vows of Bodhisattva.
. Dasa samyojana (S). Ten fetters.
Mỹ. Madhura (S). Fine, handsome, beautiful, admirable; sweet, pleasant.
. Beautiful sound, a king of the Gandharvas ( ), Indria's musicians.
nữ, . Sarasvati (S). The Muse of India, goddess of speech and learning, hence called goddess of rhetoric; she is the female energy or wife of Brahmà, and also goddess of the river Sarasvati.